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Biochemistry Lecture No. 10.docx

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Biochemistry 3380G

Biochemistry Lecture No. 10: Lipids Thursday September 27 , 2012h Introduction: -A lipid is a biological molecule that is not very soluble in water (practically insoluble means hydrophobic). An example of a practical application of lipids in the body is the lipid bi-layer of which all cell membranes are comprised. Saturated & Unsaturated Fatty Acids: -Saturated fatty acids are saturated with hydrogen atoms. Monounsaturated fatty acids contain 1 element of unsaturation (1 double bond).There are 2 ways you can make unsaturated fats: as a trans or cis stereoisomer. The difference between the two is in the orientation of the substituents (hydrogen atoms) as there can be no rotation about the double bond. -The cis stereoisomer causes fatty acids to form a kink (bend in its shape). Double bonds in biological systems will tend to put bonds in specific places (between carbons 9 and 10). Cis double bond arrangements are the norm; trans double bond arrangements are rare in nature (synthetic). When 2 or more double bonds are present in a fatty acid it is considered a polyunsaturated fatty acid. You normally don’t get conjugated double bonds ALL CIS Biochemical Conventions For Fatty Acids: -C16:1 cis-Δ9 C16:1 (n-7) C16:1 (ω-7) C16:1 -Where C16 is the number of carbons, 1 is the number of double bonds, cis-∆9 is a cis double bond starting at the 9 carbon form the carboxyl group, (n-7) is the 7 carbon from the end of the fatty acid th chain, (ω-7) is the 7 carbon from the other end of the molecule, and C16:1 assumes that the double bond is cis and between the 9 and 10 carbon in the fatty acid chain. -Fatty acid chains usually range from 2 carbons(acetate) to 24 or 30 carbons in saturated fatty acids. They always have an even number of carbons (around 12 to 20 on average). Fatty Acid Saturation & Cholesterol: -Cholesterol in the body comes in two distinct forms: LDL cholesterol (a low-density lipoprotein, carries cholesterol to tissues) and HDL cholesterol (a high-density lipoprotein, scavenges cholesterol from tissues). The effect of saturated fats on LDL and HD
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