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Biochemistry Lecture No. 22.docx

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Biochemistry 3380G

Biochemistry Lecture No. 22: Introduction To DNA & RNA th Tuesday October 30 , 2012 Major Functions Of DNA & RNA: -Major in the flow of genetic material, both DNA and RNA play key roles in the human body. While DNA is responsible for carrying genetic material, RNA provides a template for producing proteins (mRNA), makes up much of the ribosome (rRNA), and also carries amino acids to the ribosome (tRNA). Building Blocks Of RNA: -Ribonucleotides are composed of three parts: a sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate. Once a nitrogenous base is added to a sugar, the resulting molecule is called a nucleoside (e.g. cytidine). The base and the sugar are structurally held together by an N-glycosidic bond since the anomeric carbon is joined to a nitrogen atom in the base. This leaves the anomeric carbon stuck in its β configuration (all nucleic acids in our cells have their sugar in the β configuration). A prime (‘) is used to denote numbering in a sugar that is part of a nucleoside. -As phosphate groups are added to the nucleoside at the 5’ carbon in its sugar, you start to see the development of a nucleotide. Phosphoanhydride bonds are excellent bonds for storing energy (e.g. ATP). In DNA, the sugar is a deoxyribose, which always loses an oxygen atom from the hydroxyl group on the 2’ carbon. Nitrogenous Bases – Purines & Pyrimidines: -Purines are nitrogenous bases in DNA and RNA
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