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Lecture 22

Biochemistry 2280A Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Catabolite Activator Protein, Glycosylation, Factor Viii

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Eric Ball

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1. Increase ability to obtain and use biochemical information provided in
different format
2. Understand mechanisms
3. Thing critically about why biochemical mechanisms occur as they do
4. Consider how structure relates to function
5. Introduce to experimental design
6. Describe how biochemistry relates to human disease
You should
Read textbook and course notes before class
Come to class fully engaged
Review after class
He uses
Glossary he gets deffs from there
Note pack with summaries
Learning modules online
Garland science ECB recourses for videos flashcards and quizzes
Biochemistry personal trainer is where he gets his questions
Doesn't hand out powerpoints because he is an asshole dick brain
Textbook is primary source of info
** get extra figures from outside text
Gene expression
encodes 21000 proteins
any cell type less than 10000 are expressed and are expressed
different levels
crucial expressed properly or growth and differentiation wont
o shows 2d protein gels from brain and liver to show that
genome is the same but proteins expressed are different ie.
Brain shows some but liver doesn't and vice versa
o these differences are what makes a liver cell liver and a brain
cell brain
when things aren’t expressed properly disease is the result
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by therapeutically manipulating gene expression you can fix
Central Dogma
DNA from transcription translationprotein
How many steps can gene expression can be regulated in
eukaryotic cell?
More than 8
Steps of gene regulation in eukaryotic cell:
a) Transcription
i) Initiation
ii) Elongation
iii) Termination
b) RNA processing (preMRNA)
i) RNA editing
ii) 5’ cap
iii) splicing
iv) 3 polyadenylation
c) Rate of mRNA export from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (Why is this
not an issue for prokaryotes? Happen in the cytoplasm?)
d) Rate of mRNA degradation: the amount of mRNA found in a cell
depends on Both rate of synthesis and decay some very quickly
some very slowly
e) Translation (RNA-protein)
i) Rate of translational initiation, elongation, and termination
f) Protein processing and modification(sometimes)
i) Proteolytic cleavage to activate a protein like insulin
ii) Phosphorylation
iii) Glycosylation addition of one or more sugar moieties
iv) Acetylation addition of acetyl group
g) Protein degradation (los of protein or turnover)
i) The amount of protein present is determined by the balance of its
rate of synthesis with its rate of loss
Key definitions
o Required for transcriptional initiation
o Includes sequences that recognize RNA polymerase and
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Why have RNA step in Gene expression?
1. The rna step provides an amplification which contributes to differential
gene expression
2. Since RNA can be degraded, expression of a gene can be stopped quickly
RNA can be gotten rid of quickly cant be done with DNA
3. RNA provides additional opportunities to regulate gene expression
Rna processing
Rna exports from the nucleus
For many genes it is the most regulated step
Prokaryotic Transcription
o Gene and promoter structure
Promoter: the DNA sequence required to initiate
transcription of gene or operon
Terminator: the dna sequence required to stop
Operon: a set of genes transcribed from a single
promoter and thus expressed from a common RNA
Bacterial Operon structure:
Makes RNA
Groups of protein encoding genes
Three independent protein products from the
same RNA only in prokaryotes
No 0’s when labelling
Key features?
-10 sequence situated 10 bases upstream
from +1 (TTGACA)
-35 sequence situated 35 bases upstream
from +1 (TATAAT)
just remember that they are specific
if we can align promoters are there common
sequence elements in different E. coli promoters
a group of sequences were aligned to maximize
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