Biochemistry 2280A Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Nutrition Facts Label, Galactose, Glycogenin

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Topic 9: carbohydrates encompasses sugars (monosaccharides and polysaccharides, monosaccharides: simplest form of carbohydrates. N can be any number from 3-7 generally, for monosaccharides. Ose = general suffix that indicates a sugar. Chiral carbon = attached to 4 different substituents. Bonds that are going up and down are going into the page, bonds going sideways are popping out of the page. To number a carbohydrate, start at the end with the carbon that has two bonds to oxygen. In monosaccharides, one carbon will always have 2 bonds to oxygen: most biological monosaccharides are in the d-orientation at the highest numbered chiral carbon. D-orientation is when the oh is on the right side of the highest numbered chiral carbon. Oh from carbon 5 attacks the aldehyde (oxygen on carbon 5 is attracted to carbon 1) Creates a bond between carbon 5 and 1 instead of aldehyde, we now have an alcohol ring structure.

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