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Lecture 5

Biochemistry 2280A Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Oseltamivir, Neuraminidase Inhibitor, Sumo Protein

3 pages39 viewsFall 2016

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Biochemistry 2280A
Eric Ball

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Tuesday, September 22, 2015
Enzyme Catalysis
Meakin Lecture 6
By the end of today:
-describe what an enzyme is and how it accelerates biochemical reactions
-understand the different types of reactions that enzymes can perform
-understand what catalysts do
Enzyme Catalysis
-biological catalysts
perform nearly all chemical transformations in cells
accelerate, but are unchanged by, a reaction
-most enzymes are proteins
-name often ends in 'ase‘ (eg. protease)
-often extremely specific
they have ‘targeted’ or restricted ligands (called substrates)
substrate: the molecule on which an enzyme acts
-enzymes carry out a limited number of chemical reactions
Types of Chemical Reactions Carried Out by Enzymes
-hydrolytic — cleavage using water
nucleases, proteases, phosphatases
-condensation — connect molecules together
polymerases, synthases
-isomerization — rearrange bonds
-oxidation-reduction — gain or loss of electrons
oxidases, reductases, dehydrogenases
-group transfer — transfer chemical group
phosphorylation, sumolyation, acetylation, glycosylation
Enzymes Act On But Are Unchanged By Substrates
Active Site of Enzymes
-part of the enzyme where the reaction takes place
small part of enzyme surface (5% or less)
often a cleft or crevice between domains
-substrate binds in active site
multiple weak bonds
dissociates from enzyme
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