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Lecture 6

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Biology 1001A

Lecture 6: First online MC assessment oct 9 to 11th 10-15 questions from lecture 2 through 8 2% of final grade 2 attempts anytime over 3 days  What is your DNA sequence doing?   Scientists defined functional as something that might be expressed  DNA is still junk because it makes stuff like transposons and viruses doesn't make you  junk DNA is evidence of evolution  relating DNA and chromosomes  what do you do with the ends of the chromosome?  Double helical structure of DNA with 2 antiparallel backbones  o held together by hydrogen bond  DNA structure   Antiparallel means each of the single strands of DNA has a distinct 3' and 5' end that confers polarity on DNA backbones   one end have a 3' the other strand is 5'  3' end has a free hydroxyl (OH) group  5' end has a free phosphate  2 strands of double helix run antiparallel to each other  Replication is semi-conservative   demonstrated by Meselson-Stahl expperiment  DNA polymerase extends the 3' OH  DNA replicates from 5' to 3'   Elongation happens at the 3' end  Clicker question:   to replace the gap shown below, DNA will be synthesized but in which direction?   left to right  extend the 3' end  to replace the gap shown below DNA will be synthesized but in which direction   right to left  extend the 3' end  to extend the chromosome as shown below, DNA will be synthesized but on which strand?   grey strand  extend the 3' end, find and identify 3' and it'll extend from there, length in the question doesn't matter  Replisomes replicate one strand continuously, one discontinuously, active at a replication fork   Replisomes contain 2 molecules of DNA polymerases  going simultaneously, only can extend the 3' end and the parent strands are going in the opposite directions  replication is semi-conservative and semi-discontinuous  Replication "bubble" arises from 2 "forks" created at 1 "origin"   Bidirectional   both direction at the same time  creates a replication bubble  be able to draw the structure of the bubble   primers  okazaki fragments  Just 2 forks makes 1 bubble (draw a bubble)  Primers provide a 3' OH so that DNA polymerase can extend  prokaryotes' genome are small, it can have one origin  Large, linear, eukaryotic chromosomes fire several origins simultaneously   going both directions and multiple origins so it replicates them quickly  Chromatids are identical DNA molecules attached at their centromeres   G1: growth phase, DNA stays the same  S phase chromosomes repli
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