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Lecture 4

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Biology 1001A

Lecture 4: Biodiversity  There are more new species not being discovered than discovered  New species of bat called Myotis diminutus discovered in 2012  o size of an Ipod shuffle  New nematode parasite living in the lungs of Rhabdias singaporensis  o found in Singapore  Universal common descent and origin of species, give rise to every single species on this planet   We do not know how many species are out there  99.9% of all species that existed on Earth are gone now  a guess of 3 million species worldwide to 100 million worldwide  Similarities due to descent from a single common ancestor   All life descended from LUCA  We all have something in common   we store our genetic information in form of DNA,  we have have lipids  For every group of species there's a common ancestor to every single one of them  many "most common recent ancestor"  Reverse tour of evolutionary history   Start at present day humans and climb down the tree of life  8.7 million other species doing the same thing that we could have chosen  Branching points on tree of life -> rendezvous points  At each point, meet other species and the group's MRCA (Most common recent ancestor)  Rendezvous zero ? MRCA (most recent common ancestor) of all humans   Group on:   How far back in time do we have to go to find an individual who's a direct ancestor of all people alive today?   Solved by mathematical biologists  MRCA of everybody alive today as recently as 3000 years ago  Rendezvous 1: Chimps and bonobos (great apes)   Chimps and bonobos are more closely related to each other than us   5-6 million years ago diverges into chimps and bonobos and then us  We are cousins of chimps, share a MCRA but we don't come from chimpanzees  Rendezvous 2: Gorillas   Next closes to us than chimps  7 - 8 million years ago was the last time we shared a MRCA with the gorillas  MRCA of African great apes  Rendezvous 3: Orangutans   14 million years ago was the last time we shared a MRCA with the orangutans  MRCA of all the great apes  Rendezvous 4: Gibbons   18 million years ago was the last time we shared a MRCA with gibbons  They are very fast  live in south east asia  MRCA of all apes at 18 million years  Rendezvous 5 an
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