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Lecture 2

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Biology 1001A

Lecture 2: Evolution in Action: Human Immunodeficiency Virus  AIDS was discovered over 30 years ago  HIV is everywhere, but it is more in Africa, and less in the more developed worlds  Deaths due to deaths is decrease now, because of new drugs  Group on:  o Still no cure or vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Why not? o  One of the problems are the HIV are rapidly evolving, so that the drug might not work later, multiple strains of virus, hard to cure, to find a drug to treat them  Conspiracy theories (more drugs, more money, don't want to cure it)  Human immune system is not up to par with HIV virus, we cannot defend against them right now, did not evolve as fast as the HIV virus  Tree of life  o Bacteria o Archae o Eukarya  Virus are not alive, not on the tree of life  o No metabolic processes  o there's a virosphere, which classifies viruses o obligate cellular parasites -> cannot reproduce unless its in a host cell o Viruses uses host's cells metabolic processes/machinery to reproduce Anti-viral therapy often has serious side effects because the viruses are using the host's cells so its hard to find a drug that will kill the virus without harming the host cells  HIVs are like retroviruses  o retrovirus store their genetic information in RNA  Central dogma  o Replication -> DNA o Transcription -> RNA o Translation -> protein o cannot to backwards, only one way  Retroviruses uses reverse transcription: they start with RNA and turn into DNA  o they do not have proof-reading enzymes o mutation rate is very high o HIV is 1 million times greater than in humans o HIV only has 9 genes while humans have 25 thousand  HIV lifecycle:  1. Virion (viral particle) enters host cell, only 9 proteins of its own 2. Reverse transcriptase grabs a hold of the viral RNA to make viral DNA 3. Integrase splices viral DNA into host DNA, viral DNA gets inserted into host's DNA 4. Transcription, translation continue in host cell so that new virions assemble and bud off or lyse out 5. This now attacks other cells and/or kills the host cell o Anti-retroviral theraties (ART) inhibits virus specific enzymes -> need to target specific enzymes to destroy and not the host o HIV inhibits the immune system and destroys our immune system so we are prone to other diseases  AZT mimics thymidine and inhibits reverse transcr
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