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Lecture 11

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Biology 1001A

Lecture 11:  Term Test Sat Oct 27, 2 to 4PM   Outcomes up to this class (10 lectures, 2 labs)  Up to 40 MC questions  Optional Q&A, Wed Oct 24, 5:30PM NCB101  IMPORTANT: WHAT'S THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENDELIAN GENETICS AND MEIOSIS  Clicker Question   Where are the genes for making a uterus? 2. On X chromosome from her mother 3. On autosomes such as Chr 6 or 14 4. On X chromosomes from her father 5. On mitochondrial chromosomes (only from her mother)  They are on the X chromosome (sex chromosomes) and autosomes  Conversely, boy parts are stored on the Y chromosome and autosomes  Mendel: Think like a scientist in the 1850s   Darwin didn't understand inheritance  Mendel didn't care about evolution and didn't know anything about meiosis, mutations etc. but he still figured out inheritance  People used to believe that inheritance was by "blending" (Progeny are intermediate)   it looked like blending  Blending of characteristics (Ex. tall+short=middle (intermediate))   like mixing paint: mix red and blue paint, you get purple paint  some of the intermediate parents have super tall and super short offsprings (shouldn't happen with blending)  Mendel thought about what happened when you cross 2 medium height people  Polygenic traits shown continuous variation in a population   You can cross intermediates you can get extreme traits back (polygenic)  Inheritance isn't inherited, it is particulate  intermediate is not a blend, its a combination of the two or more alleles  Careful experimentation with controlled crosses and quantitative analysis led to an explanatory model   Variation in traits is due to different alleles  Alleles segregate randomly into gametes   Mendel's first law  Organisms inherit 2 alleles for each trait  Appearance of heterozygotes determined by dominant alleles (Whichever allele determines the phenotype of a heterozygote is the dominant allele)  Punnet square   The gametes in a Punnet square come from meiosis  Product rule is used in the Punnet square  using the product rule   multiply all the possibilities of each individual alleles to determine the possibilities of the offspring  Group on   P on 1 homolog, p on other homologue  after MI both P in a cell and both p in one cell  The P and p separate  After meiosis you get 2 cells with P each and 2 cells with p each  Reciprocal crosses illustrate sex linkage in Drosophila (Genes are
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