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Lecture 16

Biology 1001A Lecture 16.pdf

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Biology 1001A
Beth Mac Dougall- Shackleton

Biology 1001A2012LECTURE NOTESLecture 16 Why SexWhat Sex Means in Biologyin biology sex is associated with recombination and not with copulationfor many species sex is not necessary for reproduction but for humans it is necessarySex as a Means of Recombinationrecombination results in genetic diversitymutation can form new alleles but sexual reproduction can form new combinations of allelescrossing over independent assortmentthe result are offspring that are distinct from either parent and usually distinct from each other with the exception of twins which result from the same zygotein some species sexual reproduction results in the production of identical offspring case in point armadillosmost of the time because of crossing over and independent assortment sexual reproduction results in genetically different offspringsex does not equal reproduction because reproduction can occur without sex and without recombinationasexual reproduction can take the form of runners binary ssionin biology sex is essentially the exchange of genetic informationjust as there can be reproduction without sex there can also sex without reproduction just to increase genetic variationspecies that can choose whether or not to reproduce sexually are termed facultatively sexualspecies that can only reproduce asexually are termed obligately asexualasexually reproducing species can evolve from sexually reproducing speciesin some cases courtship by another organism of the same species is necessary for reproduction even if the exchange of genetic information is not requiredSexually Reproducing Organismssexually reproducing organisms may be either dioecious or monoeciousdioecious organisms are those where the male and female reproductive components are housed in separate individualsmonoecious organisms are those that contain both the male and female reproductive components in one individual also known as hermaphroditesit is common for plants to be hermaphrodites monoecious and have both ovaries and testissome organisms such as sea slugs are hermaphrodites and form mating chains to exchange genetic information
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