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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Chapter 10 notes:  Blending theory of inheritance  Characters: variety of heritable characteristics  Trait: a variation in character  Segregation of Chromosomes: What Mendel observed.  Medel Chosse True-Breeding Garden Pees for His Experiments o Chose garden pea for his research o Pea plants self-polinize (sperm nuclei in pollen produced by anthers fertilize egg cells housed in the carpel of the same flower) o Mendel prevented self-polization by cutting off the anthers o Cross pollination: Mendel to test the effects of mating pea placnts o Chose true breeding plants: they passed traits without change from one generation to the next  Mendels’s single character crosses o Purple versus white  Took pollen from anthers with purple flowers and placed in the fokiwers of white-flowered plants ( and vice versa)  In the F2 generation: the white flowers repappears: both purple and white flowers were produced  75% purple flowered plants and 25% white-flowered plants o All cases o He observed a uniform F1 generation in which only one of the two traits were present o In the F2 generation the missing trait reappeared o Trait was present in the F1 generation in defintite predictable proportion Principle of Segregation o First hypothesis: Adult plants carry a pair of factors that govern the inheritance of each character o Deduced: each character: an organism inherist one factor from each parent o Genes: located on chromotosom: different version of the allele o Thus: two alleles govern flower color ood pease o Why do they reappear in the F2 generation? o Actually present but masked in some way as the “stronger” allele nd o 2 hypothesis: if an indivual pair of genes consist of different allels, one allel is dominant over the other, recessive, allele . o DOMINACNCE o Dominant genses do not directly inhibit recessive alleles rd 3 hypothesis: o The pairs of allels that control a character (segregate) spate as gametes are formed o Half the gametes carry one, the other half carry another o PRINCIPAL OF SEGREGATION: o Mendel’s principle that the pairs of allels that control a character segregate as gametes are formed and that hald the gametes carry one allael and the other half the other allele. Homozygote: o Is homozygous for the P allele (pp) o Lowercase indicates that its recessive o Heterozygote: 2 different alleles of the gene o Monhybrid: when a cross involves a single character o Monohybrid: produced from a cross that involves Pp and Pp o Genotype: genetic constitution of an organism o Phenotype: outward appearance Mendel’s three hypothesis: 1. Genes that govern genetic characters are present in 2 copites individuals 2. If different allels are present in an individual’s pair of genes, one allele is dominant over the other. 3. The 2 allels of a gene segregate and enter gametes singly Mendel could preic both classes and propotions of offspring from his hyptheseis o Product Rule: i
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