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Lecture

Lecture Outcomes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 1001A
Professor
Tom Haffie
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture Outcomes: Lecture 22  mutualistic, competitive and antagonistic relationships between species, given 'real world' examples o Mutalism: when both may benefit  The plant gets to exchange gametes, and the bird gets nector, or the bat gets the food reward  Ocasia plant: and ocasia ants: The ants benefit by getting shelter. Ants dig into thorns. Thorns can be feilled by nectar. The plant benefits: ants will attack: rush to defend the plant  Each species in this case: offering protection to another  Domesticaiton: Many species which we use as livsestock, pets. We breed these speies, cause them to be more abundant, and they provide us with a benefit. o Competiion: both may suffer  Species will be competing for a resource: usedby more than one resource  There will be competition between the two of them  Cheetah: range overlaps with lions in Africa: both of these are competing for food  Compete for pray, lion can chase the cheetah away  Zebras: competing for water  Each of the species is worse off because the other species is present  Plants: plants compete for space, sunlight.  That’s why individuals plants are becoming tall and bushy  Below ground: for water and rainfall and soil nutrients o Antagonism: one may benefit at the expence of another  Two species are natural enemies of each toehr  Predation: Predator benefits from having the prey around  Prey suffers  Prey’s abundance is going to be reduced  Predator is smaller in size: insect eating a plant: taking resources away from the plant  Heriborve plant-relataionships  Natural enemies to each toehr  Disesae causing organisms: parasites or pathogens at the expense of the host individual  Red things emerging: HIV varians: poppng out of host cell  Two thing interacting: virus is not a species. These things are locked in this antagonistic relationship  Getting resources at eh expense of host fitness  examples of Red Queen equilibrium o When we are in the sitiations in the arms race o Nute, garter snake o Lions are faster: better at capturing prey o  factors that advantage one side or the other in an evolutionary arms race o Relationships between natural enemies o This term: nuclear arms race: two countries: stock piling nuclea o Neither side was willing to stop piling arms: o Adaption by species A improves its abiity to interact with species B o Start of with an adaptation by species A o Put a selection pressure on species B for counter adaptation o Nutes: that are eaten by garter snakes: have phenomally levels of neurotoxin o Nute is that toxic: partilucalr species to garder snake: adapted to dealing with this nute o Garter snake is evovelved a high degree of resistance o Allows garter snake to eat that type of nute o This puts a selection npressure to high resistance o Nute: becomes more toix, gatrter snake: resist the toix o Selection pressure on to evolve counter coutner adaption o The garter snakes adaption: metabloixc enxymes to break down the neurotoxin o There are tradeoffs: each side is worse off: because f this eovlutioanry armas race o If they weren’t adapting they would lose this arms race. o Better and better equipment for survival o Predator-prey: long standing direction speed These thigns: phenomal sprint speeds o Lion versus: ancestral lion: these things stonrg directional selection: modern day lions are much faster runner o Prey species: strong directional selection: incrasing its average runnig speed o Lions do not capture any more wildebeest o Other side is evolving too o Improvement in the equipment I nteh survival o Treest in the forst: hundreds of feet tall: all that biomass in t he trunk: every species would have more energy devtoted to o Generation time:  Species with short generation: can evolve faster than a pop with long o Popualtio snize  Slectio nis more effective  More likely to genertic variation o Strength of selection  Equally strong slection on these createure on these things o Arms races between mutualisms:  Species that are interacting in a mutualism  Moth: if it go and get pollen in the shortest amount time possible  That is not the optimal sitation  Bump up and get coded  That’s how pollen transfer works better  Goode evidence: pollentating creatures: brids: longer beaks: to better reach t
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