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Lecture 15

Bio Lecture 15

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

BIO1001 Jash Parikh 2012/10/31 Biology for Sciences I Lecture 15 Why Evolution is True  Hardy-Weinberg also assumes random mating with respect to genotype o But mating is often non-random  Inbreeding Or interbreeding avoidance  Assortative OR dissassortatative  Assortative mating in snow geese  Dissasortative mating in white-throated sparrows  Non-random mating and evolution? o If a population begins mating assorative for a certain trait, but all genotypes have the same fitness, what will happen?  2 alleles, 3 genotypes (AA,Aa,aa)  Each genotype mates assortatively  Non-random mating perturbs HWE, but doesn‟t cause evolution o Homozygous individuals mate amongst themselves to create whatever amount of individuals they started with  Population becomes homozygous eventually  250 AA, 500Aa, 250aa  Becomes 375AA, 250Aa, 375aa  Why evolution is true o “Humans evolved from earlier species of animals”  Survey to the world indicated countries that believe evolution is true  United States and Turkey have the least percentage of individuals that believe in evolution  Evolution as a fact and a theory o What do scientists mean by a theory? o What do we mean by true? o What is the theory of evolution? o And what empirical evidence supports this theory?  Evolution is “only a theory”… o “an assumption based on limited knowledge…a conjecture” o “a coherent set of testable hypotheses that attempt to explain facts about the natural world”  Atomic theory of matter  Germ theory of infectious disease  Gravitational theory  What do scientists mean when we say something is true? o “an assertion for which there is so much evidence that I would be perverse to deny it”-SJ Gould o Theories „graduate‟ to fact-hood after repeated testing fails to falsify them o Assertions that cannot possibly be falsified are not scientific  What is the theory of evolution? o 1. Evolution happens  Change in allele frequencies in a population, between generations BIO1001 Jash Parikh 2012/10/31  May be due to genetic drift, natural selection, etc. o 2. Most evolution is gradual  Small changes over time gradually evolve into a different organism  Viruses and diseases can go through evolution like this, however may be a little quicker o 3. Speciation happens  Species are placed into different branches; Eukarya, Archaea, Eubacteria o 4. All life is related through common ancestry  Every species on earth is somewhat related to other species on earth  LUCA and MRCA o 5. Much of evolutionary change is caused by selection  Darwin first to come up with theory of natural selection  Process by which species become adapted to an environment o 6. Evolution occurs in populations, not within individuals  Happens between one generation to the next  Populations change but individuals do not adjust in response to selection  Descent(from a common ancestor) with modification o Homologies o Intermediates in fossil record o Earth must be old o Vestigial traits o Fossil evidence that species change o Fossil evidence that lineages split(speciate) o Direct observation of evolution in real time  Descent: homologies sh
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