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Bio 1001A Notes

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Western University
Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Lab Outcomes 11272012 92900 AM Lab 001Tools of Cell Biology 1 Identify the parts and adjustments of the stereoscopic and compound microscope 2 Define parfocal parcentric and working distance Parfocalobjects are in focus without need of refocusing after changing from one objective to another Parcentricobjects are in the center of the field without need of recentering after changing from one objective to anotherWorking distancethe distance from the objective lens to the coverslip when the specimen is in focus Note how this distance changes when you change objectives from low to medium to high power 3 Calibrate a microscope and use it to measure the actual size of an object 4 Estimate the actual size of an object under a microscope5 Calculate the magnification of a drawing 6 Convert units of measurement cm mm nm 7 Identify active areas of mitosis in a growing root tip 8 identify using a microscope the stages of mitosis for any cell 9 present the results in proper graphical form Lab 002Tools of Analysis ChiSquare Tests 1 Design an experiment such that the data can be analyzed using Chisquare2 apply the Chisquare statistical test to appropriate data 3 prepare bacterial platesHIV 002Independent Study Questions11272012 92900 AM Lecture 2HIV1 What are the general mechanisms by which vaccines protect against diseases 2 Why developing a vaccine against HIV is relatively challenging compared to other diseasesHIV has a very fast mutation rate Once the HIV is integrated into the host DNA it causes major problems for the vaccination trying to destroy the virus as it not only kills the virus but the host cell as well 3 Why people are encouraged to get a flu vaccine each year as opposed to one time only Lecture Outcomes 4 Identify the general global distribution of HIV infections HIV is a classic example of a pandemic Found across the world but some areas more than others 5 Identify the temporal trends in HIV infection rates Adults that are HIV positive are only 1 in Canada the developed world isnt very affected In South Saharan Africa and less developed countries HIV is an incredibly prevalent disease Over 60 affected with HIV in South Saharan Africa Well over 90 under the age of 15 that are HIV positive live in South Saharan Africa The number of children with HIV appears to be plateauing as well as the number of people dying 6 Identify factors that explain why no cure or universal vaccine has been developed for HIVAIDSHIV continues evolving a cure that works now may not work 10 years from now Companies may get more profit from treatment than from a cure conspiracy theory 7 Identify reasons why viruses are not considered aliveThey cannot self reproduce they are obligate parasites they need a host to reproduce that is alive to reproduce They dont have metabolic processes because they are not made up of cellsThey are not cellular they are much smaller of cells 8 Identify reasons why antiviral drug therapies often have serious side effects The antiviral drug not only kills the virus but the host cell and causes damage as well to the host tissues 9 Identify major steps in the life cycle of HIVThe virion viral particle enters the host immune cellReverse transcriptase forms a molecule of viral DNA using RNA as a template There are no proofreading enzymes involved in this process Very high rate of error which results in high mutation rates Another HIV enzyme integrates splices viral DNA into host DNA chromosomesTranscription translation and new virions assemble and bud off or lyse out and will continue creating and pumping out more and more virionsAs more and more immune cells are hijacked and infected in this way or just killed the human immune systems get broken down and they become more susceptible to sickness 10 Identify the specific role of integrase and reverse transcriptase in retroviral life cycle A splicing enzyme splices viral DNA inside the nucleus of the host genome 11 Identify the mechanism of action of AZT AZT is an antiviral drug used in the treatment of HIV It slows the growth of HIV in the body by mimicking thymidine and inhibits reverse transcription AZP is not exactly the same as thymidine therefore the chain cannot continue 12 Identify reasons why the effectiveness of AZT decreases over time Eventually it is overpowered by the viruses mutation rate Some reverse transcription molecules are somewhat or highly resistance to AZT and some
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