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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

13. Energy and thermodynamics Energy –the ability to do work - kinetic=motion - potential=stored energy; glucose has potential energy because of the bonds (chemical potential energy) Thermodynamics –study of energy and how it get transformed Closed, open and isolated systems System= object that you are studying. Example: molecule, galaxy) Surroundings= anything outside the system Isolated system –energy or matter do not move Example: thermos Closed system –only energy can exchange through a system and surroundings Example: the Earth (very little matter is exchanged Open system –everything moves, matter, light, heat, etc. Example: humans The laws of thermodynamics control everything, such as: energy flow, biological systems, etc. First Law of Thermodynamics  Total energy is constant –cant be made or destroyed, but can be changed  Example: Niagara Falls –potential to kinetic energy, followed by heat and vibrational energy Electricity can be harnessed from the falls –energy transformed Second Law of Thermodynamics  Energy transformations are never 100% efficient –some energy is lost to the environment  Entropy of a system and surroundings always increases Example: “new car smell”; doesn’t stay new.  Increase in disorder, randomness = ENTROPY (amount of energy that you can use)  Entropy increases during phase changes –solid to liquid to gas. (gas has the highest entropy)  A runner consumes potential energy to make ATP, but sweats, so loss of heat, therefore energy lost Can the reaction occur spontaneously?  Spontaneous reactions do not need energy input  Reactions tend to me spontaneous when they have a combination of the following: 1. Products have lower potential energy than the reactants. – those reactions tend to be spontaneous. Example: glucose will spontaneously break down (has high potential energy) Potential Energy (H) enthalpy ∆H= H finalH initial -∆H –exothermic (releases energy) +∆H –endothermic (required energy) 2. Products are less ordered than the reactants Entropy (S) increases Gibbs free energy Free energy –the amount of energy available to do wor
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