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Biology 1001A
Nicholas Hudson

7/9/2013 3:11:00 PM Video notes: Prof. Vaclav Smil - massively fatal discontinuities – could kill up to 100 million people in the next 50 years Severe flu pandemic – if the virus occasionally mutates so dramatically, it is essentially a new virus which lead to pandemic 1918 – new virus killed 50-100 mil people new or better vaccines for malaria, TB, HIV, pneumonia, diarrhea, flu to end suffering Smallpox – disease that killed half a billion people last century and is no longer with us because of vaccines There are about 30-odd vaccines that can be treated with vaccines now, but we are still threatened by such like HIV and flu BECAUSE until recently, we didn’t know how a vaccine EXACTLY works Old fashioned trial and error- take a pathogen, modify it, then inject it into a person or animal and see what happens. However, this method didn’t work well for all pathogens i.e. HIV for which humans have no natural immunity How vaccines work – when you get viral infection, it takes days/weeks for body to fight back at full strength Pre-immunized – forces in body pre-trained in body to recognize and defeat specific foes Every year, you catch a different strain of flu, because virus mutates HIV virus is the trickiest pathogen, because it mutates a lot, has decoys to evade the immune system, attacks the cells that are trying to fight it, and quickly hides itself in your genome Ever s
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