1. characteristics shared by all life.
2. in what way properties of life are "emergent".
3. characteristics of the "habitable zone" of a solar system.
4. conditions of a primitive Earth.
5. types of molecules that were, and were not, synthesized by the Millar-Urey
6. importance of liposomes in evolution of first cells.
7. characteristics of mimivirus that suggest it should be considered to be alive.
8. characteristics of virophage.
a. DISPLAY ORDER; arrange in a highly ordered manner, with the cell being the
fundamental unit of life
b. HARNESS AND UTILIZE ENERGY; acquire energy from the environment and
use it to maintain highly ordered state
c. REPRODUCE; have ability to make more of their own kind
d. RESPOND TO STIMULI; make adjustments to structure and function in
response to external environment
e. EXHIBIT HOMEOSTASIS; regulate internal movement and keep conditions
f. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT; change over time by increasing size or
increasing number of cells
g. EVOLVE; change over course of generation to be better adapted to the
RESPOND TO STIMULI
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
2. -remarkable complexity of life resulting from a hierarchy of interactions
-life comes about or emerges from simpler organisms
-reaction of multiple metabolic processes
-structure and functional complexity of living systems more than the sum of the
3. habitable zone = region of space around stars where the temperature would
allow for liquid water -must be situated in a position where heat from the sun allows for surface
temperature to be within range that allows water to exist at a liquid state
4. -contained an abundance of water vapour from the evaporation of water at the
surface, as well as large quantities of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and
-almost complete absence of oxygen
*PRIMITIVE EARTH WAS A REDUCING ATMOSPHERE BECAUSE OF THE
PRESENCE OF LARGE CONCENTRATIONS OF MOLECULES (H2, CH3, NH4)
WHICH CONTAINED AN ABUNDANCE OF ELECTRONS AND HYDROGEN
AND WOULD HAVE ENTERED REACTIONS WITH ONE ANOTHER THAT
WOULD YIELD LARGE AND MORE COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES
5. -didn't produce polymers!
6.Recall: protobiont = term given to group of abiotically produced organic
molecules that are surrounded by membrane or membrane-like structure
-probionts could have formed spontaneously, and they are similar to liposomes
(lipid vesicles forming a bilayer similar to cell membrane)
-clay particles could catalyze polymerization of nucleic acids and accelerate
formation of lipid vesicles
-but also use the lipid vesicle surface as a catalyzation location, hence liposomes
(lipid vesicle structures) played important role to development of eath
-AID FORMATION OF POLYMERS
6. mimivirus= perform horizontal gene transfer
-uses it's own genes to build a viral factory
7. -a virus that infects other vi