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L04 – Biodiversity

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

L04 – Biodiversity New species are being discovered all the time. 15,000 new species all the time, so almost as fast as we’re eliminating species How many species are there on earth and in the ocean? - estimated 8.7 million very gross underestimate (open to debate - 86% of earth species and 91% of ocean species await description - only about 1 mil have scientific names Similarities due to descent from a single common ancestor (LUCA) - many MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor, at least one for each bacteria, archaea, and eukarya) - only one LUCA - there will be a corresponding point in the phylogeny when the branching occurs (ancestor) - The Ancestor’s Tale – reverse travel through evolution - Branching points on the tree of life correspond to rendezvous points, as in The Ancestor’s Tale Reverse Tour of Evolutionary History - at each rendezvous point we can speculate as to the group’s MRCA - how far back do we have to go to find a direct ancestor of all people alive today? - Mathematical biologists modeled that the most recent common ancestor of everyone lived as recently as 3000 years ago (using math) - Rendezvous 1 – Chimps & bonobos * more common to one another than to us * if we are descended from chimpanzees, why are there still chimpanzees? * we are not DESCENDANTS, we share an ANCESTOR with chimps “cousins” - Rendezvous 2 – Gorillas * very closely related to humans * ~7 million years ago MRCA of African Great Apes - Rendezvous 3 – Orangutans * 14 mil years ago (also great apes, asian) * Rendezvous 4 – Gibbons * 12 different species of Gibbon alive today * not great apes * smaller than typical gorilla/ human * 18 mil years ago, MRCA of all apes (which includes Gibbons ) - Rendezvous 5 & 6 – Old world & New world monkeys * 25 million years ago we meet up w/ Old world Monkeys * evolved in Africa & Asia * 40 million years ago joined New World Monkeys (ex. Squirrel monkeys) - Rendezvous 7: Tarsiers Rendezvous
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