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Biology 1000A lecture 1.doc

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

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Biology 1000A- Lecture 1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) • First discovered in 1981 -Most common in Africa (15%-28%) of population are infected with HIV (HIV positive) -35 million people worldwide are living with HIV • HIV is known as a zoonotic disease (can be transferred from animals to humans) • Humans became exposed to chimpanzee SIV -Came in contact with bodily fluids of infected chimpanzee • HIV is the fastest evolving/mutating disease known -No approved vaccine of HIV, due to it's fast evolution. • Viruses do not fit into the tree of life, since they are not considered living things -Do not perform metabolic processes -Do not have a cell-based structure (a cell is considered the basic unit of life) • Anti-viral drugs have serious side effects -Alot of collateral damage is done on host cells -The pressure exerted on the body's immune system yields many side effects • Retroviruses disobey central dogma of molecular biology (replication-->transcription-- >translation) -DNAis synthesized from an RNAtemplate by means of the enzyme reverse transcriptase. -RNAfrom virus is first incubated with a primer -DNTPs (deoxyribonucleotides) match with their complementary base pairs on the RNA, and RT buffers are added to the reaction to speed up processes -The end result is a complementary DNAstrand, which will code to produce more viruses, and destroy the cell. HIV Lifecycle • Avirion (viral particle) enters a host cell • Reverse transcriptase yields the viral DNA • Integrase splices viral DNAinto host DNA • Transcription, translation, new virions assemble and enter circulation • Immune system collapses as a result Steps to Virus hijacking: 1. The protein coating on the HIV virus attaches to the protein receptors on the host cell's plasma membrane. 2. The virus enters the cell by endocytosis (whereas a vesicle forms around the virion from the folding of the cell membrane) 3. Reverse transcriptase catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary DNAstrand from a viral RNA strand, and the synthesis of a complementary DNAstrand to the viral DNA. 4. The double stranded DNAis then incorporated into the host cell's DNA 5. Transcription of the DNAresults in the production of RNA. This serves as the genome for new
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