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Lecture 5

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Biology 1001A
Nicholas Hudson

9/18/2013 6:40:00 PM Lecture 5: Genomic Variation Independent Study Outcomes 1. meaning of "C-value". 2. "paradox" or "enigma" associated with C values 3. meaning of haploid (n) and diploid (2n) 4. relationship between C and n as measures of genome size. 5. proportion of the human genome that codes for protein. Lecture Outcomes In multiple choice questions, identify the non-nuclear genomes in typical plant and animal cells. - Plant cell has DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts - Plant cell has 3 diff genomes: in nucleus, mitochon, and chloroplasts - animals do not have chloroplast but have mitochondria genomes trend in C value from prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells. non-nuclear genomes generally, increase C value in euk than prok relationship between C value and organismal complexity no relationship relationship between C value and ploidy In mitosis, ploidy doesn’t change (always diploid, 2n). BUT, C value doubles after S phase until end of anaphase. Stage----------Chromosome#----------DNA# G1------------------16----------------16 (2C) G2------------------16----------------32 (4C) Mitosis:Pro/Meta/Ana16----------------32 (4C) Mitosis:Telo/End-----16----------------16 (2C) In meiosis, ploidy becomes in half (to produce haploid gametes), and C value becomes half by the end of meiosis I and becomes half again (1/4 of original C) by the end of meiosis II. G1------------------16----------------16 (2C) G2------------------16----------------32 (4C) Meiosis I Pro--------16----------------32 (4C) Meiosis I M/A--------8----------------32 (4C) Meiosis I Telo/End---8----------------16 (2C) Meiosis II Pro--------8----------------16 (2C) Meiosis II M/A--------8----------------16 (2C) Meiosis Telo/End-----8------------------8 (C) distribution of linear vs. circular chromosomes in the various domains of life. euk have LINEAR chromosomes while arch/bac have circ role of nucleosomes in DNA packaging in chromosomes - used to pack large euk genomes into nucleus general trends in costs of DNA sequencing - declining; free by the end I graduate relative distribution of various component of genome sequence ("junk" vs. essential DNA) 55% transposons, viruses, dead genes (junk… genes used to work but then suffered mutations) 10% introns (non coding) 10% coding (2% protein coding) 25% unknown (most likely junk) Lecture Notes Clicker question:
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