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Lecture 6

Biology 1000 Lecture 6.doc

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Western University
Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Biology 1000ALecture 6 notes • The first genome sequence ever reported was that of the bacterium Haemophilus Influenzae, using the whole-genome shotgun method, whereas the entire genome is broken into millions of random, overlapping fragments • Each fragment is then cloned and sequenced • With technology and computer algorithms evolving, the DNAof all organisms can now be sequenced. • This research is supported with studies such as infectious diseases, cancer medicine, enzyme production. • Once a genome has been sequenced, the next step is annotation, whereas important genes, generally protein coding genes are identified. • Using computer analysis, researchers identify protein-coding genes by finding the start codon in a sequence (ATG), and examining a multiple of three nucleotides at a time until the stop codon(s). • This is much easier to identify in prokaryotic genomes, since their genetic sequences have no introns (genes which do not code). • The bacterial organism Carsonella ruddii is the organism with the smallest known genome sequence (182 genes). • The genomes of organisms in the Eukaryote domain vary the greatest in size. For example, the genome sequence of yeast is about 0.4% of the human genome sequence. • Genome sizes are measured in megabase (Mb*), which represents one million bases. • Genes are packed less densely in eukaryotes than in prokaryotes. • The human genome sequence contains about 3 billion genes • Only about 20000 genes are protein-coding genes. • The protein-coding sequences occupy less than 2% of the human genome. • Introns- the non-coding spacers in genes occupy about 24% of the genome. • More than 50% of the human genome consists of repeated sequences that have no function • There are bioethical issues arising to genomic studies; that genetic information should be private. • Most eukaryotes have two copies of each chromoso
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