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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Outcomes .docx

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

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Lecture 2- Evolution and HIV General global distribution of HIV infections. - 35 million people currently living with HIV - In Canada this comes to 1.5% of our population whereas in Africa it is about 15 to 28% Reasons why HIV is more common in some parts of the world than others. - much more common in Africa because of the lower standard of living, fact that it can be passed through animals that originated in Africa - SIV virus jumped from chimpanzees – this jump is known as zoonosis Factors that explain why no cure or universal vaccine has been developed for HIV/AIDS. - the virus mutates very quickly and as a result it is hard to keep track of its many variations Reasons why viruses are not considered “alive”. - viruses are not considered alive because don’t fit into the tree of life - they simply do not exist if they have no host cell - they have genetic information (DNA, RNA) but have no metabolism of their own - much debate still though as to if we can consider them “living” Reasons why anti-viral drug therapies often have serious side effects. - anti- viral drugs have serious side-effects because there are no specialized steps that these drugs can do to target only infected cells - as a result the drugs will target cells that are not infected as well Major steps in life cycle of HIV. - Virion (viral particle) enters host cell - Reverse transcriptase converts RNA to viral DNA (no proof reading) - Integrase splices viral DNA into host DNA - Transcription and translation occur and new virions assemble and enter circulation - Immune system collapses Specific role of integrase and reverse transcriptase in retroviral life cycle. - important in the life cycle of HIV - Integrase – splices viral DNA into host DNA to take “control” of the cell - Re
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