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Lecture 3

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Lecture 3: Origin of Life Age of the Earth. - 4.6 billion years old Age of start of life on Earth. - 4 billion years – stromatolites – type of bacteria Domains of life. - Bacteria - Archaea - Eukaryotes Characteristics of LUCA - LUCA was not first form of life, just ancestor of every living thing on planet - Many branches 4 million years ago before LUCA - Perhaps things that came before died out early Characteristics shared by all domains of life. - 1. Cells made of lipids - 2. Genetic system based on DNA - 3. DNA to RNA to Protein transfer - 4. Common system of protein assembly - 5. ATP - 6. Glucose and Glycolysis Reason why the term “prokaryote” is inappropriate. - This is a bad term because it says that bacteria and archaea are evolutionary related and they are not - Also pro means before which means prokaryotes means” before nucleus” but there is no evidence to suggest LUCA didn't’t have nucleus Reductive evolution explanation for rise of bacteria and archaea. - LUCA proto-eukaryote? Had nucleus – fair amount of complexity - Complexity lost in bacteria and archaea – reductive evolution – advantage to get rid of things – streamlining Advantages of evolutionary simplification (streamlining). - Bacteria can then reproduce faster and evolve faster - This is why bacteria and archaea are found in extreme conditions – extremophiles Relationship between homochirality and life - All life: use L amino acids and D sugars - Essential to life because of specificity ; eg. For
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