Lecture 2 Outcomes
General global distribution of HIV infections.
Found everywhere in earth. Some places such as Africa has more higher rates.
Factors that explain why no cure or universal vaccine has been developed for HIV/AIDS.
It changes a lot, it continues evolving, so a cure that works now but it wont work after it changes. Multiple viruses, we
need lots of variation. We need a vaccine that contains various amounts of antibodies
Reasons why viruses are not considered “alive”.
They rely on a host to reproduce, They are obligate. They don’t have their own metabolic processes. Not made up of
cells (not cell based)
Reasons why anti-viral drug therapies often have serious side effects.
Virus uses the host structure machinery, so if we use this it damages the host cell along with the virus cell.
Major steps in life cycle of HIV.
HIV is a retrovirus. It stores its genetic information in the form of RNA. It has to go through reverse transcription.
Goes from RNA to DNA so there is no proofreading mechanism, so lots of mutations can occur. This results in
mutation rate of HIV to be very high.
It injects its contents into the hosts cell. Injects RNA into cytoplasm, one of the viral enzymes (reverse transcriptase)