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Lecture 7

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Characteristics of ATP- ● It’s energy bruh bruh what else do you want Role of C-H bond in bioenergetics - ● For any atom, an electron that is farther away from the nucleus contains more energy than an electron that is more closely held by the nucleus ● The electrons that form the C-H bond are equidistant from both atomic nuclei, not being held strongly by either ● Because of this, the electrons can easily be removed and used to perform work ● In comparison to CO 2here the oxygen is highly electronegative and tightly holds onto the electrons in the bond very closely, meaning it has very little free energy and is useless Role of redox potential in bioenergetics - ● Redox potential represents how strongly a molecule will readily give up or accept electrons ● It serves its role in bioenergetics because electron transport needs to be spontaneous, thus depends on redox potential allows for flow of the electron to occur ● Also, the electron carriers must have a more positive redox potential than the molecules they are oxidizing so that energy is not required to do so Role of FAD, NAD+ as electron carriers - ● They oxidize the glucose molecule and its subsequent molecules, carry two electrons per carrier ● They travel to the electron transport chain where they are oxidized and their respective electrons are used in the chain to reduce oxygen to form water, all while creating an electrochemical gradient for the synthesis ofATP Location, products, distribution in nature and purpose of pathways such as glycolysis, CAcycle, respiratory electron transport etc. - ● Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol ● Rest of cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria ● CitricAcid Cycle is located in the mitochondrial matric ● Respiratory Electron Transport is located on the inner mitochondrial membrane Role of energy coupling in early steps of glycolysis - ● Coupling means to couple an endergonic reaction with an exergonic reaction and this results in an overall net exergonic reaction ● The first reaction, where glucose is bonded with an organic phosphate molecule, the reaction is endergonic and thus requires energy to continue and allow for the enzymes to act on it; this is where an exergonic reaction comes into play and the two are coupled ● The exergonic reaction is the hydrolysis ofATP, has a greater negative exergonic value and leads to a net exergonic coupled reaction Relative potential energy of various intermediate compounds (eg. glucose vs. pyruvate vs. CO2) - ● Glucose has the highest potential energy as it has not been oxidized at all to reduce NAD+ orADP ● Pyruvate has less relative potential energy as the glucose molecule has been oxidized and lost some potential energy in the form on NADH andATP to form pyruvate molecules ● CO 2as the least potential energy as the previous molecule has been oxidized completely and all that is left 2s CO which has no potential energy; the previous molecules potential energy is completely gone in the form onATP and NADH Reasons why catabolic intermediates are phosphorylated - ● Phosphorylating the molecule results it is becoming less stable, more reactive, and thus more readily able to break down to provide its free energy ● Also, by adding the phosphate group which is negatively charged, it gives the glucose a negative charge which keeps it from leaving the cell as otherwise it can easily diffuse out ● Also, in substrate-level phosphorylation, the molecule PEP (phosphoenol pyruvate) has a phosphate group is transferred toADP formingATP btw pyruvate kinase ○ this forms pyruvate molecules ○ reason why PEP gives up the phosphate group is because it has high phosphoryl transfer potential which means it readily transfers toADP Link between glycolysis and CitricAcid Cycle - ● The link between glycolysis and citric acid cycle is the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ● The pyruvate is moved from the cytosol and into the mitochondrial matrix ● PDC transforms pyruvate into acetyl-CoAby a series of processes ● Acetyl-CoAmay then be used in the citric acid cycle to carry out cellular respiration Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex - ● Catalyzes oxidation and reduction of NAD+, NADP+ into NADH and NADPH respectively ● All of the enzymes that catalyze pyruvate intoAcetyl-CoAare apart of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex ● First, the pyruvate is decarboxylated and a carboxyl group is removed as it contains no C- H bonds thus no energy ● Second, the molecule is oxidized to reduce NAD+ into NADH by a dehydrogenase ● Third, Coenzyme A is added to the acetyl molecule, and like phosphorylation, it makes the molecule more reactive, resulting in the final molecule:Acetyl-CoA Diagnostic value of relative ratios of bioenergetic intermediates (eg.ATP, pyruvate, NAD etc.) - ● Relative location of electron transport chain components relative to mitochondrial membrane, matrix, intermembrane space - ● Complex I, III, and IV, integral membrane proteins, are located on the inner mitochondrial membrane ● Complex II, a single peripheral membrane protein is located on the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane ● Complexes I and IV pump electrons from the matrix to the intermembrane compartment ● ATP synthase synthesizesATP to the matrix side of the inner mitochondrial membrane ● UQ travels from within the membrane ● Cytochrome C is located on the on the intermembrane compartment
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