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Lecture 25.docx

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Western University
Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Characteristics of direct causal vs emergent schemata - ● Adirect and causal schemata is a sequential linear “story” that plays out in steps ● Emergence is an explanatory schema; is a feature of complex systems Examples of direct causal vs. emergent schemata - ● The basic lac operon we learned is direct and causal ● Diffusion is emergent How molecules behave when diffusing in water - ● It is believed that the molecules diffuse as a result of a directive force due to a gradient ● Rather, diffusion is more of a “random” process than it is directive ● The pattern of diffusion (moving from one side and spreading over equally to both sides) is very non-random, but the pattern emerges from an interaction among the entire collection of agents ● For molecules, heat is constantly moving molecules and it too causes the pattern to emerge as once the diffusion has occurred, the molecules don’t stop! They continue moving around ● Characteristics of complicated vs complex systems - ● Acomplicated system is one in which there are many parts, there are defined relationships, it’s highly controlled, sequential, and highly predictable ○ Complicated systems are just ‘more’of a simple system ● Acomplex system is one in which there are many parts, changing relationships, no central control, self organized, has emergent patterns (1/f), and has low predictability Reasons why large effects do not require large causes in complex systems - ● We are used to causal thinking that says that big effects are a result of big causes ● In a complex system, you do not need a huge force to get a huge result; a very small change can give rise to catastrophic results ● Complex systems are very sensitive to starting conditions Definition of "attractor state" - ● A state of a system that is relatively stable where any object in that
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