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Lecture 19

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Biology Chapter 48.1 (Lecture 19) Evolutionary Ecology • Ecology- interactions between organisms and their environment o Abiotic Components (non-biological, physical factors in the environment) vs. Biotic Components (Biological, living components in the environment) • Ecological interactions affect evolutionary processes o Rates of speciation and extinction o Patterns of selection and evolution Evolutionary Ecology and Biodiversity • Constant turnover and replacement of species • Biodiversity (number of species) reflects a balance between speciation and extinction Adaptive Radiation: Extreme Speciation • Ancestral species quickly differentiates into many descendant species 1. Evolutionary Innovations (evolution or flowersmore efficient in spreading pollen than pine trees) 2. Release from Competition; Colonizing new Islands 3. Release from Competition; Mass Extinction Extinction • Ultimate fate of all species • Background extinction level o Mostly low, but nonzero o Extinction risk is independent of species age o Some groups more extinction prone • 5 big mass extinctions recorded over the history of time • A 6 mass extinction is predicted o Background vs. current rates of extinction o Human impacts: hunting, species introductions, habitat and climate alteration o Predicted 10,000 to 30,000 species per year When two Species Interact • One or both species may benefit • One or both species may suffer • Evolutionary arms race favour adaptations and counter-adaptations o i.e Predator-Prey interaction; co-evolving together Who wins the Evolutionary Arms Race? • May keep escalating indefinitely • Sometimes one side has the advantage o Generation time o Population Size o Life-dinner principle; There i
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