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October 10 - Origins of Variation II.docx

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

October 10, 2012 – Lecture 9: Origins of Variation II Reading Notes Section 9.1: Mechanism of Genetic Recombination  DNA: ‘Backbone” of the helix winding around the interior “steps” of paired bases  Sugar-phosphate backbone held by strong covalent bonds, base pairs held through weak hydrogen bonds  Homologous regions: regions of DNA that are very similar, but not identical in the sequence of bases  Once homologous regions of DNA paired, enzymes break covalent bond in each of the four sugar-phosphate backbones. Then the free ends of each backbone are exchanged and reattached to those of the other DNA molecule  Result is cutting and pasting four DNA backbones in one recombination event Section 9.3: Genetic Recombination in Eukaryotes: Meiosis (Summary) Section 15.2b: DNA Fingerprinting is used to Identify Human Individuals and Individuals of Other Species  DNA Fingerprinting used in forensics to distinguish between individuals of the same species using DNA samples  Most typically PCR technique to analyze DNA variations at various loci in genome  Each locus is an example of a short tandem repeat (STR) sequence, each locus has different repeated sequence  DNA fingerprinting used in forensics, testing paternity and establishing ancestry, used in studies of other organisms Lecture Notes:  Why is the wrong tautomeric form of thymine not removed by mismatch repair? o This pairing doesn’t distort the helix (undetectable)  Some mutagens are tautomerically unstable base “analogues” o DNA polymerase has hard time telling difference between 5-Bromouracil from Thymine, makes 5-Bromouracil an “analogue”, incorporat
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