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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 IS - Cell Cycling word.doc

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Biology 1001A

Lecture 7 IS- Cell Cycling Factors that help cells pass on their genome - DNA replicates before mitosis - Each daughter cell gets a sister chromatid- genetically identical 1. Stages and main characteristics of the stages of mitosis - Prophase (early and mid) - DNA condenses to chromosomes - and spindle fibres form - Prometaphase (late) - Nuclear envelope dissolves - spindle fibres attaches to chromosomes - Metaphase - Spindle poles attach to chromosomes and moves them so that chro- mosomes line up in the middle of the cell - Anaphase - cohesin dissolves and allows sister chromatids to separate (early) - microtubules attach and sister chromatids move apart to opposite sides (late) - Telophase - nuclear envelope reforms, chromatids unlatch from the spindle fibres, sister chromatids decondense and cell pinches apart (cytokinesis) - in plants, cells do not pinch in the cell walls, it generates a new cell wall between the two new cells - some fungal and algal cells do not dissolve their nuclear enve- lope this is known as closed mitosis 2. Role and mechanism of the mitotic spindle - composed of two spindle poles that move to opposite sides of the cell dur- ing mitosis - at the spindle pole where microtubules meet there is a special protein complex called the microtubules organizing center. In most animals, it is called the centrosome - fibres called microtubules radiate outward from the spindle poles and these are what attaches to the chromatids (cannot pierce the nuclear envelope so waits until the nuclear envelope is dissolved) - microtubules only attach to the kinetochore because its protein binds to the microtubules - it is a long polymer of proteins called tubulin that be added or re- moved from the ends - microtubules have many proteins attached to them - motor proteins are one of them which are respo
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