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Lecture 8

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Biology 1001A

Lecture 8 Outcomes 1. Different types of genomic variation among humans - 75% are CNV - 25% are SNP - 300 variants in insertion of retro elements (LINES, SINES) - IS elements (transposons, retrotransposons, retroviruses) - meiosis 2. Structure of IS elements, transposons, retrotransposons and retroviruses - Insertion Sequence seqence of genes codes for its own mobility, codes for trans- posase - transposase is a recombinase, makes cuts in DNA backbones - moves the IS into a different site - so IS codes for its own mobility - transposons is the DNA that gets transposed - carry genes for things like antibiotic resistance - a problem since they can move around in bacteria - retrotransposons - moves from one place to another by reverse transcribing their genes into double stranded DNA and inserts that copy to another place - original stays in position - retrovirus - from retrovirus your ancestors got - that retrovirus got a mutation so that it can’t out of the cell - therefore it gets stuck in your genome 45% - these can cause diseases because it messes with the genome - but probably not cause of chronic diseases 3. Types of evidence that would be useful in determining how long the human genome as been infected by a given mobile element. - how many times it appears in the genome - if its been there longer there would probably be more frequency - look at species related to us - look at if the last MCRA has it and then we can estimate when the genome be- came infected by an mobile epement 4. Mechanism by which tautomeric shifts in DNA bases leads to alternative base pairing - causes SNP mutations
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