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Tom Haffie (1,170)
Lecture 18

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Biology 1001A
Tom Haffie

Lecture 18 November-13-12 10:35 AM Females pay attention to: • Resource -holding potential • Physical, athletic ability • Kindness to children Males pay attention: • Cues of youth and fertility • Waist to hip ratio (smaller hips) Men might misdirect their paternity to offspring of another male Sexual selection • Why does it happen? ○ Sex places different selection pressures on males than females;high investing sex is a limiting factor for low investing sex • Which sex competes,which chooses? ○ Males, females • Can it operate on both sexes at the same time? ○ Yes, both can invest heavily Selection is fundamentally competitive • Fighting for mates Both group living and cooperationare common Types of social interaction Actor benefits Actor is harmed Recipient benefits Cooperation Altruism Recipient is harmed Selfishness Spite • Altruism is "a special difficulty, which at first appeared to me insuperable, and actually fatal to my whole theory" Altruism • Altruism reduces one's fitness for the increase of another's fitness • Parents protecting offspring from a threat • Some birds help their parents take care of other offspring (siblings) • How can traits reducing fitness (offspring production) be selectivelyfavoured ○ Sacrificing individual fitness for the good of the group? More to "fitness than simply producing direct descendants • Personal reproduction --> direct fitness • Additional reproduction by relatives do to your 'altruism' --> indirect fitness • Direct + indirect fitness = inclusive fitness • Kin selectionfavours traits that increase indirec
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