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Biology 1002B
Denis Maxwell

Lecture 1: Introducing Bio 1002B and Chlamydomonas 1. Identify criteria used to measure complexity.  No empirical evidence that to prove that complexity increased during evolution  Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotjc cells  Animals and plants are more complex than protists  Measuring complexity o Genome size of total number of genes o Gene (copy) number  the number of copies of a gene in a given gene family from gene duplication o increase in organismal size over evolution  embryonic development supports this idea  evolution leads to decrease in size opposes this idea  parasites  organisms living between sand grains and high tide levels on beaches  in large animals like elephants after several generations of isolation on islands o number of genes that encode proteins o number of parts of units o number of cell types (most commonly used) o increased compartmentalization, specialization or subdivision of function over evolution o number of gene, gene network or cell-to-cell interactions required to form parts of an organism o number of interactions between the parts of an organism  increasing functional complexity and or integration over the course of evolution  life cycle of a parasite (parasitism) o multiple intermediate hosts o take advantage of evolution of other organisms with different and new environments o adaptive advantage  build up population numbers in intermediate hosts  enhance parasite’s chance of infecting a primary host  spreading early stages among intermediate hosts conserves resources of primary host  enable adult parasite to remain productive for long periods 2. Identify the main structural components of Chlamydomonas cells.  Unicellular  Soil-dwelling green alga  2 anterior flagella (cilia) for motility and mating  10 m6  Multiple mitochondria  Chloroplast o photosynthetic apparatus, metabolic pathways 3. Identify the relationship between Chlamydomonas and the evolutionary common ancestor of animals and plants.  Streptophytes (land plants) descendant over a billion years ago  Genes shared by Chlamydomonas and animals o derived from last plant-animal common ancestor o many lost in angiosperms, eukaryotic flagellum/cilium and the associated basal body/centriole  last common ancestor of plants and animals o many
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