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Lecture 7

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Biology 1002B
Denis Maxwell

Lecture 7: Energy Transformation II 1. Characteristics of ATP  Energy carrier 2. Role of C-H bond in bioenergetics  Take potential free energy in CH bond and conserve energy into ATP 3. Role of redox potential in bioenergetics  Carriers arranged from more negative to positive redox potential where e are readily easy to give up 4. Role of FAD, NAD+ as electron carriers  Carry electrons and help create a proton gradient which helps synthesize ATP 5. Location, products, distribution in nature and purpose of pathways such as glycolysis, CA cycle, respiratory electron transport etc.  Glycolysis o Cytosol o Splitting of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate o No carbon is loss o Oxygen is not needed (anaerobic) since no oxygen present in ancient anaerobic organisms o Energy in glucose used to reduce 2NAD to 2NADH  Potential energy in 2 pyruvate molecules since some electrons are loss o Consume (energy investment) ATP in order to make a net 2 ATP  CA cycle o Mitochondrial matrix o Happens twice o Purpose of cycle: use carbon energy and get rid the rest of the carbo+ and free energy transferred to citrate o Reduce NAD to NADH o Oxaloacetate (4C) + acetyl-coA (2A)  6 carbon citrate o Oxaloacetate is the substrate of citric acid cycle 6. Role of energy coupling in early steps of glycolysis  Not a spontaneous reaction o Endergonic reaction coupled with an exergonic reaction o Exergonic – hydrolysis/breakdown of ATP through hexokinase (bind ATP & glucose but not2H O)  Free energy of phosphate conserved by attaching phosphate to glucose  Phosphate group is charged (keep in compartment)  Make glucose more reactive, stable  make more ATP  When add up coupled reaction, it is spontaneous  Thermodynamically unstable but kinetically stable (slow, if fast it will heat up cells) 7. Substrate-level Phosphorylation in Glycolysis  PEP + ADP –pyruvate kinase pyruvate + ATP  Enzyme catalyzing removing of phosphate  Break CH bonds and conserve that energy into ATP  PEP and gluose-6-phosphate have high phosphoryl transfer potential to make ATP 8. Relative potential energy of various intermediate compounds (eg. glucose vs. pyruvate vs. CO2)  glucose has more free energy, then pyruvate then CO2 9. Link between glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycle  Transport charged pyruvate from cytosol to mitochondrial matrix  Oxidize pyruvate o Since there are still CH bonds o No free energy in carboxyl group  Decarboxylation gets rid of 2O waste  Dehydrogenase helps reduce NAD to NADH  Coenzyme A to make acetyl coA more reactive  All enzymes together in this step are called pyruvate dehydrogenase complex 10. Relative location of electron transport chain components relative to mitochondrial membrane, matrix, intermembrane space  Complex I, II, IV are integral proteins  Complex I = 40 proteins/genes each doing diff things o Drives oxidation of NADH to pump protons  All energy is in ATP or energy carriers  UQ very similar to PQ in photosynthetic ET o Move electrons from complex I to III  Complex II where FADH t2 FAD  Pumping hydrogen ion in complex I, IV creates gradient o ATP synthase makes ATP in matrix  Oxidation component – NADH, FADH 2  Phosphorylation component – ATP synthesis  Two different parts of electron transport and chemiosmosis synthesis of ATP 11. Role of oxygen in electron transport  Terminal electron acceptor to give you water 12. Role of NADH in electron transport  Convert energy from NADH to ATP and provide protons 13. Role of prosthetic groups in ETC  Prosthetic groups/cofactors are needed for protein complexes in ETC to function 14. Relationship between redox potential of ETC intermediates and “flow” of electrons  very negative redox potential = very easy to oxide e.g. NADH -0.32  Oxygen is highly elec
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