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14.1 Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotic Cells.docx

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

14.1: Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotic Cells Wednesday, March 06, 2013 7:52 PM  Proks tend to be single-celled, relatively simple, with generation times measured in minutes  Prok cells undergo rapid and reversible alteration in biochemical pathways that allows them to adapt quickly to changes in their environment  The operon is a unit of transcription  A cluster of prok genes and the DNA sequence involved in their regulation  Brings multiple genes under the control of a single operator  The promoter is a region where the RNA pol beings transcription  The operator is a binding sequence for a regulatory pn,  A gene that is separate from the operon encodes the regulatory pn  Repressors, regulatory pns, bind to the DNA and reduce the likelihood that genes will get transcribed  Activators, regulatory pns, bind to the DNA and increase the likelihood that genes will get transcribed  Many operons are controlled by more than one regulatory mechanism  The transcription unit is the cluster of genes that are transcribed into a single mRNA  Typically, the pns encoded by genes in the same operon catalyze steps int eh same process, such as enzymes acting in sequence in a biochemical pathway  The lac operon for lactose metabolism is transcribed when an inducer inactivates a repressor  The metabolism of lactose as an nrg source involves 3 genes:  lacZ  lacV  lacA
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