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Lecture 14

Lecture 14 Eukaryotic Gene Expression.docx

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Lecture 14: Eukaryotic Gene Expression Wednesday, March 06, 2013 5:31 PM Today's Topics:  Announcements:  Homework: Lecture Topic:  Euks are pretty much the same as proks except the for the present of the nucleus  This allows the cell to keep the ribosomes away from the mRNA for some time (this provides the cell with various opportunities for regulation…)  The synthesis and function of a typical tRNA molecule requires complementary base-pairing with 1. Itself 2. DNA 3. Other RNA 4. One particular amino acid  1, 2, 3  tRNA comes from transcription, and during transcription, RNA is complementary base- paired with DNA  Amino acids do not have bases, are not bases, cannot base pair  Operons bring several genes under the control of a single operator  What happens is the operator doesn't work?  How many stop codons (in DNA) are in this picture?  4  There are 4 genes in this picture and every gene has its own stop codon, so 4 start and 4 stop codons  Eukaryotic gene expression diagram:  For cells that are trying to make the right pn at the time time, place, condition, amount….these regulatory points are key  Nuclear gene structure is more complicated than in organelles Genes don't have to have intron   Promoter Proximal regions are pn binding sites (regulatory sequence) upstream of promoter  The enhancer can be quite far away from the gene that they regulate  RNA polymerase II does not bind to "naked" promoters  In euk, there is more than one RNA pol  Pol II is the one that recognizes the gene promoters and only if the TATA binding pn has associated with the promoter  Transcription factors regulate efficiency of polymerase binding  TATA binding pn also attracts other transcription factors  How do pns bind DNA  Its mostly electrostatic (positive pns, negative DNA)  Helix-turn-Helix  Alpha-helices  Lac repressor  Zinc-finger A series of aas that are able to associate with Zn ions and then form a particular shape that recognizes DNA sequence  Leucine-sipper Hold two monomeric DNA binding pns together  Even though enhancers are so far away, they are able to affect their designated genes Activators near the enhancer and the promoter create a complex together, folding the DNA creating a loop and stabilizing the entire structure Makes the promoter very attractive to the polymerase  Promoters are location and direction specific, enhancers are location and direction independent  Unique combin
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