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Lecture 4

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Lecture 4: Energy and Enzymes January 16, 2013  2 law – disorder of system + surrounding increase  Cells are highly ordered, proteins are also order o Cells are open system so there’s exchange of energy between the cell (system) and the surrounding. This allows the cell to bring in large amount of energy to maintain order o Heat increase the disorder of the surrounding  Free energy o Delta G = Delta H – T X delta S o Delta G = free energy (endergonic (+) or exergonic (-) o Delta H = enthalpy (can be endothermic (+) or exothermic (-) o Delta S = entropy (more ordered (+) or less disorder (-) o Reaction tend to be spontaneous (- delta G) (exergonic) when… the potential energy of product is higher than the potential energy of reactants  Also spontaneous when its more disordered, when entropy is high  Contributions of enthalpy and entropy o Fermentation of glucose to ethanol o C6H1206(s) -> 2C5H5OH (l) + CO2 (g) o It is spontaneous, it has a delta G of -218 KJ/mol o It is exothermic, delta H is – 82 KJ/mol o T detla S is 136 KJ/mol o E.g. melting of ice  H20 (s) -> H20 (l)  Delta G = -225 KJ/mol  This is a endothermic process, delta H is + 95KJ/mol  What drives this is massive disorder, it is entropy driven, T delta S = 320 KJ/mol  Enzymes o They have massive impact on speeding up the process, it can speed it up about 10^12 – 10^20 times faster than regular natural process o Why does life need enzymes?  Using enzymes to not increasing the temperature, to achieve the same speed of the reaction we needed in our body o What enzymes do and don’t do  A -> B -> C  Delta G <0 delta G >0 (need energy)  Enzymes do not provide energy for the process, cannot do anything if there is no energy supporting them  Exergonic reaction ener
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