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Lecture 3

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Western University
Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Lecture 3: Protein structure and function  Where is there an antenna around the photosystem but there is no antenna on photoreceptor o The eye does not need to harvest the energy, photoreceptors wants to form an image, want photons to hit everywhere, so we can see the surroundings, to pick up on all the possible wavelengths to see o Photosystem want to harvest energy (getting photon), using it for growth and maintenance  Biological functions: o Biochemistry Genetics o Protein Gene  Protein abundance: points of control  What controls amount of protein in a cell o Transcription: copying of DNA to mRNA, can regulate the expression of specific genes that codes for specific protein  Transcript abundance, how much of the corresponding protein mRNA in the cell  The mRNA can break down, so it also depends on how long they can stay in contact, some might decay in minutes some in hours  Transcript abundance depends on the Rate of transcription and the rate of decay is to figure out how many transcript of a protein one cell have o Translation: mRNA to proteins can regulate translation. mRNA, ribosomes, protein o Protein abundance:  Measuring transcript abundance o Isolate total RNA from cell or tissue samples o Run the sample on a gel electrophoresis  Dominant RNA in our cells is rRNA (ribosomal RNA)  mRNA are very little compared to rRNA o transfer the electrophoresis onto a membrane,  How do we see the mRNA that we want to see? We use a probe o we expose the membrane to radioactive gene-specific “probe”  probe is single stranded DNA, it will hybridize with the mRNA on the membrane  we made the probe, so we know the sequences, high efficiency, will bind with membrane mRNA very effectively  northern blot: is after the probe has bind with the mRNA on the membrane o Why don’t we see the mRNA for the E. coli o Western blot:  Using antibodies  Antibodies have high specificity for proteins  It is easier to do than northern blot, more cost efficient  Heat shock response o Chlamydomonas cells shifted from growth temperature of 24 degree C to 40 degree C o Transcript abundance of hsp1  This tells u the expression of hsp1, it increases 3-4hrs and then it just drops off, it is gone after 24 hours
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