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Lecture 7

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Lecture 7: Energy Transformation II  Next class bring paper and pen, drawing lots of stuff  Cellular respiration o Catabolic… exergonic  Convert C-H bonds into ATP o Carbs, fats, proteins…  Glucose uses the entire cellular respiration pathway o Need to know where ATP is made, where NADH is made  Know glycolysis o Where is it found o What does it do? o Free energy?  Where does it go? o Requires O2?  Huge demand for oxygen, but the whole process does not require oxygen o Where is the carbon?  We start with carbon, where does it end up? o Compare with photosynthesis  The differences, where they occur, how is Calvin cycle similar and different than Citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain  Glycolysis o Splitting of glucose o Occurs in the cytosol in eukaryotic and prokaryotes  Nothing specific about cellular respiration for eukaryotes o Nothing catalysis the process, very ancient system o Did not lose any carbon, did not lose any oxygen o Reduction of NADH, (from NAD+ reduced to NADH), there is less energy in 2 Pyruvate because some energy is required to make 2 NADH o Need to consume 2 ATP, but 4 is generated, so a net of 2 ATP is formed  Energy Coupling o Glucose catalyzed by Hexokinase, not spontaneous, cannot happen by itself o Half reactions  Pi + glucose -> glucose – 6 – P delta G = + 3.3 KJ/mol  ATP + H2O -> ADP + Pi delta G = - 7.3 kcal/mol o Coupled reaction:  ATP + glucose -> ADP + glucose – 6 – P delta G = -4 kcal/mol o Water cannot access the active site  No real hydrolysis happen, the free energy of the phosphate is transferred to glucose o But why?  To phosphorylate glucose?  A phosphate group is charged, glucose is not charged, so when we add an charge, we can keep the glucose in the same compartment  Make the glucose more unstable, more reactive, readily to break apart  Substrate-level phosphorylation o The phosphate group is transferred from Phosphoenol-pyruvate (PEP) o PEP is very reactive, readily give up phosphate o With pyruvate kinase PEP can generate ATP o Phosphoryl transfer potential, readily releases phosphate group to generate ATP  Mitochondria o Compare structure to chloroplast o Structures:  Outer mitochondrial membrane  Inner mitochondrial membrane  Intermembrane space  Matrix  Linking Glycolysis and Citric acid cycle o Cytosol the pyruvate need to move into mitochondrial matrix o No free energy in the carboxyl group in the pyruvate o So that it goes through decarboxylation  Release of the CO2 o Dehydrogenase reduces NAD+ to NADH soon after decarboxylation o Then it adds Coenzyme A, making it more reactive, Acetyl CoA, easier to react with enzyme to react o Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, deals with pyruvate after its being imported from cytosol to mitochondria  Citric Acid Cycle (CAC) o When Acetyl-CoA comes in, it’ll loses the CO2  No more carbon from now on o Get the remaining energy from the acetyl group and linking it to the NADH and FADH2  Consumes NAD+ to produce NADH o Oxaloacetate is a 4 carbon molecule o Oxaloacetate binds with the 2 carbons to form a 6 carbon molecule called Citrate  Oxidative phosphorylation o There are
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