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Lecture 17

Lecture 17: "Cancer"

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

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Biology Lecture No 17 Cancer thMonday March 12 2012 RECALLThe methylation of cytosine is one common mechanism of epigenetics The direct modification of histones with the acetylation or methylation of histone tails is another mechanism by which this can occur Chromatin remodeling is also an example of epigenetic regulation When vertebrate females inactivate X chromosomes a mosaic between paternal and maternal Xchromosomes is observed When making gametes you put sexspecific methylation tags on your DNA The SD box and the terminator sequence in prokaryotes are examples of sequences that are transcribed but not translated Enhancers and ER target sequences do not fall into this category as enhancers are not even transcribed and ER target sequences are both transcribed and translated Entire XChromosome Inactivation How is it possible to inactivate an entire chromosome in X inactivation There are two likely explanations One notion is that chromatin which is loose and available will become more likely to be transcribed In the chromosome with less available chromatin it is typically inactivated almost entirely The other likely scenario is that the chromatin is shut down by an RNA gene on the X chromosome called XIST XInactive Specific Transcript XIST is produced only from the inactive Xchromosome it still functions as RNA but when it associates with the Xchromosome its binding all over it eventually suppresses the chromosome
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