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Department
Biology
Course
Biology 1002B
Professor
Tom Haffie
Semester
Winter

Description
2. Lose a little bit of energy to a sub excited state, and then you can lose the remaining energy as fluorescence light. This red light is different from the red light that it absorbs in the beginning. Fluorescence light has longer wavelength, slightly lower energy because some of the energy has lost as heat from the excited state 3. You can do work: trapping energy to do work. The work is photochemistry. Using the light to change the structure of a pigment. 4. Transfer the energy of the excited state of the pigment to a neighbouring pigment. g. Reason(s) why relative fluorescence is different in isolated chlorophyll vs. intact cells when exposed to light.
 Fluorescence is higher with isolated chlorophyll. There is less fluorescence in the cell sample (intact cell) because the cell requires a lot of energy for it to run the cell processes it needs to function properly. Therefore, the energy produced by the excitation could be used by essential molecules and cell organelles to perform these processes. The energy can also be transferred to the reaction center to drive photochemistry as part of photosynthesis. It is possible that the cell has developed an evolutionary mechanism which help utilize light energy by minimizing energy loss and the amount of fluorescence give off. In the isolated chlorophyll, there is no pathway for the energy produced to be utilized so it is released via fluorescence. Since none of the energy is being utilized by other processes like in the cell, most of the energy is released as fluorescence, producing a higher amount of fluorescence than in the cell. h. What accounts for the fact that chlorophyll is green in colour It is because there is no green excited state. There isn’t excited state between red and blue photon absorption. If there was then the chlorophyll will be able to absorb green light. Green photons are just lost so chlorophyll cannot absorb them, so the photon is either reflected or transmitted through that pigment. i. Quantitative relationship between photons and excited electrons.
 One photon can excite one electron: one to one equivalency. j. Relationship between energy of photon and energy required to excite electrons in order for photons to be absorbed.
 For the energy to absorb, to trap the photon, the energy that’s in the photon, whatever that energy is, must match the energy required to get from the ground state to the excited state. k. General structure of photosystem. Photosystem comprised with 2 parts: antenna, protein and chlorophyll that is individually bound to the protein antenna surrounds the reaction center in the middle. l. Similarities and differences of the light capturing and photochemistry of phototransduction (retinal) vs. photosynthesis (chlorophyll). Similarities of light capturing: both absorbs photons of light in visible light spectrum Similarities of photochemistry: Differences of light capturing: in photosynthesis, you want to capture as much light as possible whereas in photoreceptor, the rods and cones harvest light as information. Differences of photochemistry: in phototransduction, this event takes place in photoreceptor, the photochemical event is called the isomerization of retinal. In photosynthesis, the structural unit of light capture is called photosystem. In phototransduction, there is a change of the configuration of cis-tran retinal. When
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