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Biology Lecture 5

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Lecture 5 Thermodynamics: is the field of science that deals with energy and energy transformation Energy: the capacity to do work  Kinetic  Potential  Chemical potential System: what we are interested in studying (cell, planet, galaxy)  Isolated: neither energy or matter move in or out  Closed: energy moves in and out, but matter can’t (earth is a closed system)  Open: both energy and matter exchangeable First Law of Thermodynamics  Total energy is constant (but you can transform it)  Transformation isn’t 100% efficient  Causes car engines to heat up Second Law of Thermodynamics  Every energy transformation increases the disorder of the universe. ENTROPY  Energy transformations are not 100% efficient  The disorder of an isolated system always go up  ONLY FOR ISOLATED SYSTEMS  Physical objects always break down (entropy at play) o Reason why translation never stops o Proteins ALWAYS break down Entropy and protein synthesis  Proteins are constantly breaking down (this is why photosynthesis slows down in isolated mitochondria and chloroplasts because it can’t be resupplied with new proteins)  You can’t stop transcription/translation because proteins keep breaking down Spontaneous reactions take place without energy input  Conditions needed… o Products have lower potential energy than the reactants  Enthalpy (Heat): when ∆H<0 , exothermic  Endothermic: ∆H>0 o Products are less ordered than the reactant molecules  Entropy (S-randomness) increases common in spontaneous reactions  Increase in phase changes  Diffusion is entropy driven Gibbs Free Energy  Free energy, energy which you can actually use in a system  ∆G = ∆ H -T ∆ S  Entropy at a temperature will steal some of the enthalpy and whast’s left is your free energy  Spontaneous when ∆G<0, non spontaneous otherwise  Disorder increases as you do a phase change from solid, to liquid to gas. Exergonic: ∆G<0, spontaneous Endergonic: ∆G>0 Free energy, Stability, work ca
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