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Lecture 16

Biology Lecture 16 Outcomes

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Lecture 16 Which of the follow must pass through a nuclear pore in order to get from where it is synthesized to where it functions?  rRNA*  plyA polymerase*  tRNA*  snRNA PolyA polymerase is made in the cytoplasm and functions in nucleus by adding poly A tails rRNA functions out side made inside tRNA made inside functions outside Synthesis of membrane proteins is targeted to the ER by a pepetide “tag” that is the fist to emerge from the ribosome. Where does this peptide tag sequence appear in DNA? In the Coding region because it has to appear as part of the final protein product Micro RNA  transcribed from a gene in the nuceus  then it leaves the nucleus and pairs with itself  associates with a protein called dicer  it cuts up rna into smaller pieces and attracts the attention of more protiens that bind to this now single stranded RNA  they base pair with target mRNA  miRNA are complimentary to specific mRNA, bind to them and stop them.  Stop translation Proteasome  Proteins are fed into it and broken into smaller peptides  Ubiquitin is used tag proteins for recycling when the cell is finished using the enzyme  Regulate proteins by regulating their degradation Regulations  Transcriptional regulation: determines which genes are translated  Post transcriptional : determines types and availability of mRNAs to ribosomes  Translational determines rate at which proteins are made  Post translation: determines availability of finished proteins Epigenetics refers to stable change in gene expression: not sequence  They are not mutations  They are not genetic changes, they are epigenetic changes (over the life of an organism or from one generation to the next) Gene silencing by DNA methylation is reversible by diet **MICE  Dark mouse= agouti colour= normal  Yellow or patchy is not normal  Yellow: has special allele of agouti that is expressed everywhere making it fat and yellow and tumours  Normal allele is expressed only in the skin  It’s a dominant allele  IAP: has very powerful expression sequences, enhancer and promoters  It has inserted into the mouse genome right beside the agouti gene and drives expression of agouti gene everywhere all the time not just in the skin  You can shut off this powerful promoter sequence by putting methyl groups on it (represented by stars in pic)  Cytosine methylation: shuts of powerful promoter  This is Epigenetic control: modifying expression of gene by methylation its promoter  When its de methylated its expressed a lot  Take Yellow fat mothers, most of her babies are yellow and fat because IAP is demethylated  Methylation state of the mom influences methylati
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