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Lecture 12

Biology Lecture 12 Outcomes

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

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Lecture 12 Defining characteristic of eukaryotes, energy transducing organelles, Nuclear envelope Endomembrane system: comes from infolding of plasma membrane Endosymbiosis: mitochondria and chloroplasts are descendants from free-living prokaryotic cells Cyanobacteria: group of mitochondria containing cells, took up other prokaryotes and made it the chloroplasts Evidence for Endosymbiosis  Morphology: way they divide, shape, size, similar to prokaryotic cells  Formation/ division: similar to bacterial division o No genes that build mitochondria o Old mitochondria and chloroplasts divide  Electron transport chains, no other organelles have this  Genomes: have own DNA, code for proteins needed to help organelle function  Transcription/ translation machinery What drove evolution of eukaryotes?  Earliest prokaryotes were anaerobic  2.2 bya get cyanobacteria- oxygenic photosynthesis  Prokaryotes that undergo aerobic respiration o Cells took up these organisms because they make lots of ATP  WHAT IS THE DIFFFERENCE IN ATP PRODUCTION B/W ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC Eukaryotic cells are bigger more complex  Thru endosymbiosis cell overcame energy barrier o More ATP made  High PM surface are/ volume ratio o ETC on PM o There’s other things of PM as well, so finite amount of are that can be dedicated to energy production o Constricts volume  Low PM surface are/ volume o Hundreds of mitochondria, o SA that can be dedicated to making energy is huge o Overcomes energy barrier  Cell energy budget: 75%  DNA replication 2%  Eukaryotes have larger budget to spend towards proteins o Make cooler more specific functions More energy led to bigger Genomes **missed point  Our genome is 500 times larger  You have energy to support bigger genome Lateral gene transfer  Genes move from mitochondrion to nucleus (over millions of years) Lateral gene transfer is going on now!  Presence of oxidase3 gene (southern blot)  B shows evidence of lateral gene transfer A doesn’t  C shows lateral gene transfer before gene has degraded in mitochondria Earliest Eukaryotes  Giardia (parts of diplomonads)
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