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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - Evolution of Eukaryotes.docx

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Western University
Biology 1002B

Evolution of EukaryotesFormation of Endomembrane SystemoAncient prokaryotic cell oThrough gradual infolding of plasma membrane oEndomembrane system formed Golgi apparatusER Nuclear envelopeEnergyTransducing Organelles oEndosymbiosis Prokaryotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts were engulfed by larger prokaryotic cellsFormed mutually advantageous relationshipsymbiosis Mitochondria came firstcapable of using oxygen for aerobic respiration Chloroplasts developed from ingested cyanobacteria oTheory EvidenceMorphologyForm or shape of both organelles is similar to prokaryotic cells ReproductionMitochondria or chloroplasts are derived only from preexisting mitochondria and chloroplastsdivide by binary fissionGenetic Information Both organelles contain their own DNAcodes for the proteins essential for the organelles function TranscriptionTranslationContain a complete transcription and translational machineryenzymes and ribosomes Similar ribosomes to prokaryotic cellsElectron TransportCan generate energy in the form of ATP through their own ETC Driving Evolution of EukaryotesEarliest prokaryotes were anaerobic22 bya cyanobacteria evolveoOxygenic photosynthesis oAtmosphere contains oxygen Oxygen as terminal electron acceptor oProkaryotes that undergo aerobic respiration Oxygenic PhosphorylationoMore ATP Eukaryotic Cells Are BiggerMore ComplexEndosymbiosiscells overcame energy barrier Prokaryotic cells made enormous amounts of ATP through mitochondrion Prokaryotes
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