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Lesson 3 – Energy and Enzyme.docx

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Western University
Biology 1002B

Lesson 3Energy and EnzymeIsolated closed and open systemsIsolated systems do not exchange matter or energy with their surroundingsClosed systems exchange energy but not matterOpen systems exchange both energy and matterFirst law of thermodynamicsEnergy can be transformed from one form to another or transferred from place to place but can not be created or destroyedSecond law of thermodynamicsThe total disorder of a system and its surroundings always increasesSystems will move spontaneously towards arrangements with greater disorder that is greater entropyWhat is meant by the phrase it takes energy to maintain low entropyLiving things bring in energy and matter and use them to generate order out of disorderMost of the food energy we ingest is used to maintain cells in their highly ordered state Cells break down and need to synthesize new materials from simple building blocks to maintain their cellular componentsLiving things in the process of the thousands of chemical reactions needed to generate order give off lots of heat and disordered byproducts like carbon dioxide and so increase the entropy of their surroundingsThe entropy of a single system can go down if the entropy of the universe as a whole goes upMeaning of Potential energyKinetic energyChemical energy the energy contained within a chemical bondEntropy a measure of the disorder of a system and its surroundingsSpontaneous reaction the reactants will proceed to the products without the application of any external stimulus as writtenEnthalpy the potential energy of a moleculeDH the change in potential energy from reactants to productsExothermic heat is releasedenergy is lost by the reactants DHEndothermic heat is absorbedenergy is gained by the products DHGibbs Free Energy the energy available to do thingsExergonic negative DG The reaction is spontaneous
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