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Lecture 5: Energy and Thermodynamics

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Western University
Biology 1002B
Niki Sharan

Lecture 5Energy and Thermodynamics y Thermodynamics is the study of energy and energy transformationsy Energy can be defined as the capacity to do worky There are different types of energyKinetic energy associated with motion ex movement of electronsPotential energy associated with an object because of its structure or its position in a gravitational field ex rock at the top of a mountain vs rock at the bottom of a mountain ChemicalPotential energy associated with chemical bonds ex carbohydrates Isolated Closed and Open Systemsy Isolated systemenergy nor matter move in and out of the system ex thermos y Closed systemonly energy can exchange with the surroundings and matter stays within the system ex Earth y Open systemboth energy and matter can exchange with the surroundingsFirst Law of Thermodynamics y Total amount of energy in the universe is constanty Energy can be transformed however it cannot be made or destroyed yA good example of this is Niagara Falls energy transformation that abides by thefirst law of thermodynamicsy Energy transformations are not 100 efficientSecond Law of Thermodynamicsy Every energy transformation increases the disorder of the universey Energy transformations are not 100 efficient because entropy steals some of ity The disorder of an isolated system will always increase yPhysical objects always break down and that is entropy at play Entropy and Protein Synthesisy Proteins are constantly breaking down in our bodies y Transcription and translation can never be switched off because the proteins that have been made continue to break down due to entropy y It requires thousands of proteins to keep organelles like chloroplast 2000 proteins and mitochondria 3000 proteins runningy While they do have their own genome which encodes a few proteins the vast majority of the proteins required for these organelles to work are encoded by the nucleus or translated in the cytosol and later imported
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