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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - Evolution of Eukaryotes

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Biology 1002B
Niki Sharan

Lecture 12 Evolution of Eukaryotes Formation of endomembrane systemone ancestral prokaryotic cell through infolding of the plasma membrane the endomembrane system nuclear envelope endoplasmic reticulum golgi etc is formed Endosymbiosisenergy transducing organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplast were taken up by aerobic prokaryotic cell and uptake of cyanobacteriaEvidence for EndosymbiosisMorphologychloroplasts and mitochondria look like bacteria size shape etc Formationdivisionmitochondria and chloroplast are only formed from preexisting mitochondria and chloroplast in bacteria through division Electron transport chainsboth have electron transport chain as well as bacteriaGenomesboth have their own genomes entire collection of heritable material just like bacteria Transcriptiontranslation machineryboth consist of this just like bacteria What Drove the Evolution of Eukaryotes Earliest prokaryotes were anaerobic 22 billion years agodevelopment of cyanobacteria Oxygenic photosynthesis Prokaryotes then undergo aerobic respirationEukaryotic Cells are Bigger More ComplexThrough endosymbiosis cells overcame an energy barrierTypical bacterium have a high plasma membrane surface areavolume ratio Energy supplied from the plasma membrane is what supports the volume of the cell Eukaryotic cells tend to have a low plasma membrane surface areavolume ratio as they are biggerOne of the reasons they are bigger is because the electron transport chain is not found on the plasma membrane but instead found in the mitochondria Potential for eukaryotic cell to produce ATP is much higher in comparison to bacteria Eukaryotic cells are more complexthere are processes tissue development multicellularity having an endomembrane systemin eukaryotic cells that do not develop in prokaryotic cells Maintaining DNA is cheap does not take much energy 2 but to synthesize DNA to protein protein synthesis takes up a lot of energy 75 Eukaryotic cells hence can make more proteins in comparison to bacteria More energy lead to bigger genomesaverage size for a typical prokaryotic cell is 6 million base pairs and average size for a typical eukaryotic cell is 3 billion base pairs Increase in genome size is linked to having more energy to support more genes and thus more proteins
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