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Lecture 12

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Biology 1002B
Tom Haffie

Evolution of Eukaryotes 25b 25cFormation of Endomembrane System o Ancient prokaryotic cello Through gradual infolding of plasma membraneo Endomembrane system formed Golgi apparatusEndoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelopeEnergyTransducing Organelleso Endosymbiosis Prokaryotic ancestors of mitochondria and chloroplasts were engulfed by larger prokaryotic cellsFormed mutually advantageous relationshipsymbiosis Mitochondria came firstcapable of using oxygen for aerobic respiration Chloroplasts developed from ingested cyanobacteria No evidence as to whether endomembrane system came first or endosymbiosis o Theory EvidenceMorphologyForm or shape of both organelles is similar to prokaryotic cells ReproductionMitochondria or chloroplasts are derived only from preexisting mitochondria and chloroplastsdivide by binary fission like prokaryotic cellsGenomes Genetic InformationBoth organelles contain their own DNAcodes for the proteins essential for the organelles function TranscriptionTranslationContain a complete transcription and translational machineryenzymes and ribosomes Similar ribosomes to prokaryotic cellsElectron Transport chainCan generate energy in the form of ATP through their own ETCDriving Evolution of EukaryotesEarliest cells were prokaryotic and anaerobic22 billion years ago cyanobacteria evolve o Oxygenic photosynthesis photosynthesis produces O 2o Atmosphere contains oxygen Oxygen perfect as terminal electron acceptoro Prokaryotes that undergo aerobic respiration are evolvedOxygenic Phosphorylation o More ATP can be produced through cellular respiration Eukaryotic Cells Are BiggerMore ComplexEndosymbiosiscells overcame energy barrier Prokaryotic cells made enormous amounts of ATP through mitochondrion
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