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Biology 1201 A Notes.docx

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Western University
Biology 1201A
Richard Gardiner

Biology Notes September 12 2012 The Cell How we look at cells Anthony Van LeeuwenhoekEarly Microscope 1673Robert Hooke 16351703First to coin the term CELLlooking at cork Electron MicroscopeCompoundLooking at living things looking through Transmission Electron MicroscopeLooking at nonliving organismscells insid Scanning Electron Microscope Viewing surface of things Cell Fractionation Dissembling cells to look at components using a centrifuge to look at the organelles Higher speedsmaller organellesThe Cell Simplest form of matter lowest hierarchal level basic unit of life performs functions that keep us alive Virus Occur in every organism highly specific to host can only reproduce in a cell Not a cellProkaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells BacteriaNO NUCLEUS 4 Kingdoms Prostista Genetic info is in the Nucleoid Fungi animalia plants Visible Components Pasma True Nucleus MEMBRANE BOUND membrane Contains DNAribosomes nucleoid cytoplasm Visible Components Cytoplasm May Have Cell wall pili flagella nucleusRibosomes endomembrane system Many Shapes and sizes largest iscyto Skeleton MAYBE Matrix flagella cellwallThe NucleusContains most of the genes has a double membrane Phospholipid Bilayer 5 microns in diameter Is fretted with pores to allow who goes in and out pores called nuclear lamina intermediate filaments that maintain the shapeDNA in the form of chromatin appears as a diffuse massWhen the cell divides the chromatin fibers condense into chromosomesThe nucleolus is inside the nucleus carries out protein synthesis Some celles have more than 1 nuclei results from failure to form a plasma membraneCytoplasm Between cell membrane and nuclear envelope Variable viscosity contains 80 water also has nucleic acids proteins lipids etcRibosomes Responsible for protein synthesis has 2 subunits that link together Can be free ribosomes in the cytoplasm or bound ribosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum Can do both rolesEndoplasmic Reticulum RoughStudded with ribosomes responsible for the synthesis of proteins Membranes are made here SmoothNot studded with ribosomes responsible for the synthesis of lipids Loaded with enzymes makes phospholipids lipids steroids Smooth ER can also catalyze important reactions with glucose Smooth ER contains enzymes that detoxify drugs and poisons alcohol Endomembrane System Many of the internal membranes are connected directly or by vesicles transporting goodsGolgi Apparatus Vesicles from the ER are transported here Processing plant manufacturing warehousing sorting and shipping Extensive cells specialized for secretionMade of flat pancake like membranes Sacs called cisternae There are 2 sides cis and trans material goes in cis and comes out transMaterial exits in vesicles that are posted with where to goProducts from the ER can be modified it can manufacture its own macromolecules Lysosomes Contains hydrolytic enzymes that digests macromolecules Membrane bound made in the golgi apparatus Look like vesicles Optimal pH is 5 rather than the cytosol 72 Proteins in the lysosomal membrane pump hydrogen ions from the cytosol to the lumen of the lysosomes pH control Massive leakage can result in the cell dying AutodigestionLysosomes fuse with food vacuoles via phagocytosisCell eating MacrophagesLysosomes can fuse with another organelle or part of the cytosol autophagyVacuoles Storage vesicles Food Vacuoles Fuse with lysosomes Contractile Vacuoles pump excess water out of the cell Central Vacuoles found in many mature plantPlant central Vacuole found in plants bigger than the nucleus in plants The membrane tonoplast selects what goes in and out of the central using transport proteins The vacuole is responsible for maintaining turgor pressure and keeping the plant rigid as it fills and holds water Low waterlimp plantAlso used for storagepigments in vacuoles produce the many colors among different flowersSometimes contains enzymes making them much like a lysosomeMitochondria Double membrane bound powerhouse Converts energy from one for to another Location of cellular respiration generating aTP from catabolically breaking down sugarsfats Contain their own DNA and divide using it They sense their environment muscle cells Cristae inside increase surface area for ETCDepending on energy needs their may be a need for mitochondria with more cristae or larger in sizeAll mitochondria in humans are inherited by mitochondria Egg cell has room sperm does not
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