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Cell Geography Lecture Summaries.doc

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Western University
Biology 1201A
Richard Gardiner

Cell Geography (2 Lectures) Lecture 1 Early Microscope: Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek Robert Hooke: “cell” Microscopes: Looking through something-transmission electron/ compound light Looking at surface: stero/ scanning Cell= 1. Lowest hierarchical level, basic unit of life, performs all functions Virus= in every organism, highly specific to host, reproduce on when enter a cell Cells-Two Basic Types: Prokaryotic, Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Visibile Components: plasma membrane, ribosomes, nucleiod, cytoplasm Eukaryotic Visible Components: membrane bound organelles, nucleus... everything Parts of The Cell Nucleus: contains most of the genes in E double membrane, pores allow molecules to pass through nuclear side of envelope is lined by lamina(a network of intermediate filaments, maintains shape) DNA and associated proteins are organized into fibrous material chromatin, chromatin fibres coil up called chromosomes Fibres and granules adjoining chromatin, the nucleolus rRNA synthesized, and ribosomal subunits are made nucleus directs protein synthesis using mRNA [[if there are more nucleus and ribosomes in a cell=a lot of protein activity]] Cytoplasm: made up of: water, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbs, pigments, etc… Cytosol=liquid part, cytoplasm=liquid part when organelles are in it Ribosomes: contain RNA and protein Made up of 2 subunits Carry out protein synthesis, protein “Factories” Free ribosomes are suspended in cytosol, synthesize proteins that function within cytosol Bound ribosomes are on ER ^^can shift roles, if told by mRNA Endomembrane System -membranes are either in direct contact or connected via transfer of vesicle sacs of membrane -includes the nuclear envelope, ER, golgi, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane ---ER Smooth: rich in enzymes, plays role in metabolic processes, synthesizes lipids, catalyzes step in mobilization of glucose to glycogen in liver, help detox drugs and poisons in liver, frequent exposure=proliferation of ER=tolerance build up Rough: abundant in cells that secrete proteins, secretory proteins are packaged in transport vesicles, it is also a membrane factory Lecture 2 --Golgi Apparatus: transport vesicles from ERfor modification in G.A, center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping, extensive in cells for secretion, flattened membranous sacs-cristernae, Cis side receives materials, trans side buds off vesivles, manufactores own macromolecules(pectin, non-cellulose polysaccharides), tags sorts and packages materials into vesicles --Lysosomes: membrane bound sac of hydrolytic enzymes that digests macromolecules, work best at pH 5, proteins in it’s membrane pumps H+ from cytosol into lumen, lysosomes can fuse with food vacuoles (phagocytosis), can fuse with another organelle(autophagy) --Vacuoles: membrane bound sacs with varied functions, food vacuoles fuse with lysosomes, contractile vacuoles pump excess water out of cell, central vacuoles Plant Central Vacuole: membrane surrounding the central vacuole=tonoplast (selective in its transport of solutes into vacuole), stockpiles proteins or inorganic ions, deposits me
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